Further Applications of the IE Framework

Brookings Analysis of Metro Inclusive Economies
The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington, DC. In 2016 their Metropolitan Policy Program produced a report that used the Inclusive Economies framework to assess large U.S. metropolitan areas. You can read their article on the project here or view the metro map of inclusive economies that they’ve created here. In addition, you can view and download the following materials:

Brookings Metro Inclusive Economies Presentation

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Brookings Metro Inclusive Economies White Paper

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Related Indicator Initiatives

African Development Bank (AFDB): Africa Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI)

Across the African continent, infrastructure is a critical enabler for sustainable and inclusive economic growth. In the last decades, however, the lack of observable progress towards human and economic development in Africa, has been in part attributed to Africa’s weak physical infrastructure, thus highlighting the vital role infrastructure plays in realizing inclusive economies. It is under this premise that the AfDB developed the Africa Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI) to monitor and evaluate progress in infrastructure expansion across the continent. The AIDI is defined through four major components: (i) Transport, (ii) Electricity, (iii) ICT, and (iv) Water & Sanitation, which are further disaggregated into 9 indicators that directly and indirectly measure inclusive economic growth and social development. View Full Report.

Americas Quarterly: Social Inclusion Index (SII)

Now in its fourth year since publication, the Social Inclusion Index recognizes that “the rising economic tide of the past decade has not lifted all boats equally”, and “highlights pockets of the population that need to be targeted for effective social inclusion”, and consequently, fruitful inclusive economies. Apart from economic growth, poverty and inequality reduction, the SII argues for social inclusion. The need for equitable “opportunity and voice”, as well as “political accountability, political, civil and human rights, and access to public and private goods” as necessary requirements for individuals to lead a productive, safe and free life as integrated “members of society, the economy and the political system”. The SII is comprised of 22 variables, which measure access to markets, social and public services, employment, rights and justice, as well as civic participation, good governance and personal empowerment, across 17 countries. It further recognizes segments of society that are crippled owing to their race, ethnicity, gender, disability and/or personal identity. View Full Report. 

Asian Development Bank (ADB): Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators 2014: Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific, Special Supplement
Despite tremendous economic growth during the past two decades in the Asia and Pacific region, inequality in income and non-income dimensions, access to opportunity and reduction of poverty still remain significant challenges in the area. The persistence of such disparities have led to a growing recognition for a need to push for inclusive development. The Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators 2014: Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific Special Supplement, provides a theoretical and practical framework for defining and measuring inclusive growth—“economic growth with equality of opportunity”. Two important outcomes are evaluated—income and inequality—through monetary and non-monetary measures. Indicators for three policy pillars, namely, pillar one: growth and expansion of economic opportunity, pillar two: social inclusion to ensure equal access to economic opportunity, and pillar three: social safety nets, are also identified as necessary requirements for economic inclusivity. Similarly, good governance and effective institutions are recognized as fundamental drivers of inclusive growth. View Report.
Centre for Bhutan Studies and GNH Research: Gross National Happiness (GNH)

Coined by His Majesty the Fourth King of Bhutan, the Gross National Happiness Index emphasizes the need for a holistic approach to well-being. The GNH complements traditional economic measures of well-being by considering a broader spectrum of progress and social measures. Socioeconomic development is assessed against four key pillars, namely, effective governance, sustainable economic growth, cultural preservation, and environmental conservation. These four pillars are further classified into nine domains reflecting on citizen’s quality of life and overall happiness. The nine domains are: psychological well-being, health, time use, education, cultural diversity and resilience, community vitality, good governance, ecological diversity and resilience, and living standards. View Report.

Economic Commission for Africa: African Gender and Development Index (AGDI)

The African Gender and Development Index is a composite index comprised of two parts: The Gender Status Index (GSI) and The African Women’s Progress Scoreboard (AWPS). The GSI covers aspects relating to the reality of women in the African continent that can be measured quantitatively. It looks to uncover issues pertaining to gender inequality in education, health, income, time use, employment, access to resources, and formal and informal political representation. The AWPS, on the other hand, uses qualitative indicators to measure women’s progress in terms of empowerment and advancements in gender policies. The ADGI was deployed following rigorous testing in 12 countries during phase one and an additional 18 countries during the second phase. The tool allows for cross-country comparisons and for advancing policies towards eradicating women’s marginalization in Africa. View Report.

Economic Commission for Africa: African Social Development Index (ASDI)

In an attempt to promote more inclusive and equitable policies across the African continent, member States of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) developed the African Social Development Index (ASDI). The ASDI aims to reveal the continent’s current and country-specific challenges associated with human exclusion. It constructs a conceptual framework delineating the ideal trajectory of a transforming economy from growth to growth with equity, where phase (i) is basic structural, social and economic transformation; phase (ii) is sustained social and economic development, and phase (iii) achieves the ultimate desirable level of social inclusion and cohesion. It further highlights significant cultural, political, economic and social determinants of exclusion. Following the “life-cycle approach”, the ASDI measures the impact of policies on human exclusion across time, gender and geographical location in six crucial categories: survival, health, education, employment, productive income, and quality of life. View Report.

European Anti-Poverty Network (EAPN): Deliver Inclusive Growth – Put the heart back in Europe!

Established in 1990, the European Anti-Poverty Network consists of regional, national and local networks, including anti-poverty NGOs and European Organizations, together active in combating poverty and social exclusion across Europe. The year 2011 marked the first operational year of the Europe 2020 Strategy, which through National Reform Programmes (NRP) promised to deliver sustainable and inclusive growth along the European continent. In an attempt to evaluate the NRP’s progress towards inclusive growth, The EAPN analyzed the indicators used by EU member states in reaching the overall Europe 2020 targets. They found that many countries’ lacked a coherent model for achieving inclusive growth citing that many states still relied on the “trickle down” effect, and thus highlighted some of the positive examples of effective models towards inclusive growth already existent in the EU. Borrowing from these frameworks, they called out aspirational indicators they believe need to be integrated to the Europe 2020 Strategy framework. These indicators measure issues related to three thematic areas: social protection, access to affordable social services and reduction of energy poverty. View Report.

European Commission: Europe 2020

Adopted in 2010, the Europe 2020 strategy is the EU’s agenda to create smarter, greener, more sustainable and inclusive economies and societies across all EU member countries. To monitor progress towards these goals, Eurostat developed an indicator framework consisting of five key topics and eight headline indicators. The five broad categories summarize the key objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy, which are to increase employment, expand research and technology development, mitigate climate change, increase access and quality of education, and reduce poverty and social exclusion. View Report. 

Fund for Our Economic Future: “What Matters”

The Fund for Our Economic Future is a collaborative alliance of leaders dedicated to enhancing the way of life for residents of Northeast Ohio by advancing opportunities and equitable economic growth. Its flagship What Matters provides an analytical framework to help identify issues associated with inclusive economic growth in mid-sized U.S. metropolitan areas. It builds from six preceding iterations and evaluates the relationship of 55 variables, across 115 metro U.S. regions between 1990 and 2011. Using factor analysis, the report reveals that 6 broad categories help explain a large percentage of the variation across metro regions. These are education and innovation, economic polarization, type of employment, business costs, location dynamics, and connectivity. Not only does the assessment calls out specific growth patterns, it also suggests presence of both cyclical and structural changes in the nation’s metropolitan regions that need to be accounted for when promoting inclusive development. View Report.

Global Cities Institute (GCI): World Council on City Data (WCCD)

Fully integrated with the University of Toronto and with support from the World Bank, the GCI successfully developed an international standard on city metrics through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for measuring progress and economic growth at the city level. A database available through its sister organization, the WCCD, illustrates 100 core and supportive indicators across a comprehensive set of dimensions that measure well-being and economic performance. The indicators are structured around 18 themes, namely, telecommunication and innovation, transportation, urban planning, wastewater, water and sanitation, the economy, education, energy, the environment, governance, health, recreation, safety, shelter, solid waste, and a set of profile indicators. View Report.

Institute of Social Studies (ISS): Indices of Social Development (ISD)

The ISD database brings together 200 indicators from 25 sources for 193 countries. It estimates progress in social development for various countries around the world using six broad categories, each measuring economic growth, human development, and governance while considering important societal aspects such as civic activism, access to voluntary associations, intergroup cohesion, interpersonal safety, gender equality and inclusion of minorities. View Report.

Measure of America and Opportunity Nation: Opportunity Index

Developed by Measure of America in cooperation with Opportunity Nation, the Opportunity Index uses 16 indicators to better understanding the distribution of opportunity and wellbeing in the United States. The index ranks all 50 states on a scale from 0 to 100 each year, as well as scores over 2,600 counties using grades A to F. Three key dimensions are used and measure economic, educational and civic factors, providing a snapshot of what opportunity and access to upward mobility looks like for states and counties across the U.S. The three main components of the Opportunity Index are measures of jobs and the local economy, education, and indicators for community health and civic life. View Report.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): “Inclusive Growth”

The OECD through its flagship report, All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen, puts forward an approach to measuring economic outcomes that go beyond traditional measures of income growth to include aspects pertaining to well-being and inclusivity. It defines inclusive growth as “economic growth that creates opportunity for all segments of the population and distributes the dividends of increased prosperity, both in monetary and non-monetary terms, fairly across society”. Its indicator framework, builds on many years of experience and work, and are measured for all OECD countries by its statistics department, OECD Stats. Indicators for inclusive growth include measures for quality of life, material well-being, social protection programs, as well as traditional income and non-income measures of well-being. View Report.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Regional Well-being Index (RWI)

Using an interactive map, the Regional Well-being Index measures well-being across OECD member states, and allows for comparisons across 362 OECD regions on nine topics central to citizen’s well-being. Two main topics are highlighted—material well-being and quality of life. From these two broad categories nine sub-categories are defined from which indicators are selected. These nine categories are: income, employment, living conditions, health, education, the environment, safety, civic engagement, and access to services. View Report. 

Policy Link and the USC Program for Environmental and Regional Equity: National Equity Atlas

Developed by Policy Link and the UCS Program for Environmental and Regional Equity, the National Equity Atlas is a comprehensive database measuring inclusive growth across all 50 states in the United States. Incorporating hundreds of observations from public and private sources for 100 of the largest cities in the U.S. and 150 of largest metro regions, the National Equity Atlas is a policy tool that facilitates the work of policy makers and community leaders and allows for delivery of equitable policies, as well as a more resilient and prosperous economy. Their indicator framework measures inclusive growth as regions where individuals—despite “of their race/ethnicity or nativity, neighborhood of residence, or other characteristics”— can fully participate in the region’s economy, can contribute to the “region’s readiness for the future”, and can have access to the “region’s asset and resources”. View Report

Redefining Progress: Genuine Progress Indicator

Redefining Progress created the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) in 1995 as a substitute measure for the gross domestic product (GDP). The GPI was created with the intention to push policy makers to think about other aspects that affect development, such as health care, safety, a clean environment, and additional drivers of well-being. It allows for citizen’s well-being to be assessed at the national, state, regional and local level in the United States, and for time series analysis. It is derived from 26 time series data columns spanning the 1950-2004 period, and the thematic areas touch on a large array of social and economic issues, including: income and consumption, employment, productivity, inequality, education, civic engagement, material well-being, transportation, security, quality of life, cost of living, and the environment. View Report.

Social Watch: “Time for Action: Responding to Poverty, Social Exclusion and Inequality in Europe and Beyond”

Social Watch is an international network of activists and organizations working towards the elimination of poverty and the determinants of poverty, the eradication of all forms of discrimination and racism, the establishment of an equitable distribution of wealth and resources, and the protection of human rights. In their flagship report Time for Action: Responding to Poverty, Social Exclusion and Inequality in Europe and Beyond, they examine issues related to social exclusion in Europe. They build an analytical framework to measure lack of inclusivity and equity in employment, healthcare, housing, income, education, and civic participation, while paying particular attention to vulnerable groups in society. View Report.

UC Davis Center for Regional Change and Rabobank: Regional Opportunity Index

Developed by the UC Davis Center for Regional Change in partnership with the Radobank, the Regional Opportunity Index tracks people’s level of well-being and regional opportunity in communities throughout California. It is composed of two indices, one which focuses on people and the other on places, where both indices measure people’s and place’s assets and access to education, the economy, housing, mobility/transportation, health/environment, and civic life. The data is illustrated in an interactive map, and it allows for evaluation at the census tract level. View Report.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme: UN Habitat Initiative

The UN Habitat initiative initiated work around city-level indicators following the deployment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Initially, the intention was for the UN Habitat to monitor progress towards MDG 7, more specifically around issues concerning Target 11., which aimed to reduce the number of slum dwellers in urban areas by 2020. Recognizing that improving the lives of slum dwellers requires advances in many facets of development, the UN Habitat expanded their research capabilities to integrate the Habitat Agenda to the overall MDG framework. This led to the development of a Global Urban Indicators Database, with 20 key indicators, 8 check-lists and 16 extensive indicators which measure changes in patterns and outcomes on a large array of urban issues. Under this analytical framework, five key categories are promoted: improvement in shelter conditions, social development and poverty eradication, environmental management, economic development, and effective governance. View Report. 

United Nations Sustainable Development (UNSD): Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

The 2030 agenda for sustainable development established by the United Nations in cooperation with leaders around the world, is a plan for action aiming to restore balance and deliver sustainable well-being for all people and the planet. Launched into action following the culmination of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, the SDGs recognize that although there were many great achievements realized through the MDGs, there is still much work needed to resolve some of the most pressing challenges still facing our world. Nested on three significant dimensions of sustainable development—the economic, social and environmental—17 new sustainable goals and 169 targets were developed. “The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet”, from poverty and hunger to environmental degradation, freedom and justice. View Report.

World Economic Forum: The Global Gender Gap Index

First introduced in 2006 by the World Economic Forum, the Global Gender Gap Index captures inequities and social injustices against women and tracks progress towards ending gender-based discrimination. The indicators that underline the index are selected using economic, political, education and health criteria, and assesses changes in patterns for 109 countries. Three main objectives are highlighted: (i) measuring gender gaps, (ii) assessing performance using output indicators, and (iii) ranking countries according to their level of gender inclusion and equity. Their newest 2015 edition, allows for time series analysis and country comparisons on various topics relating to gender inequality. View Report.